Charlotte Fairbanks (December 11, 1871 - February 15, 1932) was a medical doctor from St. Johnsbury, Vermont. She graduated with a Ph.D in chemistry from Yale at the age of 25. Fairbanks earned her M.D. and became a practicing physician in 1902. She spent a year as the chief surgeon at the American Women's Hospital unit in Lucanzy, France during WWI. She was awarded a medal of French gratitude, and was awarded French citizenship.